High Fidelity Probe and Mitigation of Mirror Thermal Fluctuations


High Fidelity Probe and Mitigation of Mirror Thermal Fluctuations
PhD Thesis

1 Introduction to Thermal Noise
1.1 Thermal Noise in Various Measurements
1.1.1 The Brownian Movement
1.1.2 Johnson-Nyquist Noise
1.1.3 Micro Electromechanical Systems: MEMS
1.1.4 Torsion Pendulum
1.1.5 Optical Clock
1.1.6 Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory
1.1.6.1 A Short Review on Gravitational Wave
1.1.6.2 LIGO Setup
1.1.6.3 Thermal Noise in LIGO
1.2 Direct Observations of Thermal Noise in High Re
ective Mirrors
1.2.1 Previous Coating Thermal Noise Measurements
1.2.2 Coating Brownian Noise from Fixed Spacer Fabry{Perot Cavity

2 Thermal Noise in Fixed Spacer Fabry Perot Cavity
2.1 Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem
2.2 Direct Approach
2.3 Two Kinds of Thermal Noise
2.3.1 Brownian Thermal Noise
2.3.2 Thermodynamic Noise
2.4 Thermal Noise in Substrate
2.4.1 Brownian Noise in Substrate
2.4.2 Thermoelastic Noise in Substrate
2.4.3 Thermo Optic Noise in Substrate
2.5 Thermal Noise in Coatings
2.5.1 Brownian Noise in Coatings
2.5.2 Thermo{Optic Noise in Coatings
2.6 Thermal Noise in Spacer
2.6.1 Brownian Noise in Spacer
2.6.2 Thermoelastic Noise in Spacer
2.7 Photothermal Noise: Absorption from Shot Noise and Intensity Noise
2.8 Noise in the Bonding between a Mirror and a Spacer
2.8.1 Optical Contact
2.8.2 How to Measure Mechanical Loss in Optical Contact
2.9 How to Reduce Thermal Noise
2.9.1 Lower Temperature
2.9.2 Lower Loss
2.9.3 Di erent Beam Shape
2.9.4 No Coating Cavity

3 Experimental Setup
3.1 Optical Cavity as a Frequency Reference
3.2 Prototype Setup
3.2.1 8{inch Reference Cavities
3.2.2 Setup Layout
3.2.3 Result from the Prototype Setup
3.3 Two Laser Setup with 1.45 Inch Cavities
3.3.1 1.45 Inch Reference Cavities
3.3.2 Overall Explanation of The Two{Laser Setup
3.3.3 Result from 1.45 Inch Cavities
3.4 Discussion

4 Technical Noise in the Setups
4.1 Seismic Noise
4.1.1 Coupling from Seismic to Displacement Noise
4.1.2 Scattered Light and Seismic Isolation in the Setup
4.2 Mechanical Peaks from Opto{Mechanical Components
4.3 PDH Lock: Shot Noise
4.4 PDH Lock: Electronic Noise
4.5 PDH Lock: Residual Amplitude Modulation
4.6 Noise from Phase Locked Loop Readout
4.7 Photothermal Noise
4.8 Noise from Ambient Temperature

5 AlGaAs Crystalline Coatings
5.1 History of AlGaAs Usage
5.2 Thermo{Optic Noise and Coatings Optimization
5.2.1 Thermal Noise in AlGaAs Coatings
5.2.2 Optimization Consideration
5.2.3 Uncertainties in Material Parameters
5.2.4 Errors Due to Manufacturing Process
5.2.5 Optimization Method
5.2.6 Cavity Parameters
5.3 Implications for Advanced LIGO

6 Future Upgrade and Application
6.1 Future Upgrade
6.1.1 Improvement in Sensitivity at Low Frequency
6.1.2 Improvement in Sensitivity at High Frequency
6.2 Application: Frequency Stabilized Light Source
6.2.1 Laser Gyroscope
6.2.2 Crackle
6.2.3 External Cavity Diode Laser

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Public Lighting Design Manual

PUBLIC LIGHTING DESIGN MANUAL – Hongkong Highway Department

1.INTRODUCTION

2. LIGHTING FOR COVERED PEDESTRIAN ROUTES
2.1 GUIDANCE NOTE
2.2 DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS FOR SUBWAYS
2.3 DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FOOTBRIDGES, ELEVATED WALKWAYS AND ESCALATORS
2.4 DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS FOR COVERED GROUND-LEVEL WALKWAYS
2.5 DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS FOR TEMPORARY COVERED GROUND-LEVEL WALKWAYS AS-FITTED DRAWINGS, ILLUMINANCE READING & TEST REPORTS
2.7 MODEL ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATION

3. LIGHTING FOR COVERED PUBLIC TRANSPORT INTERCHANGES
3.1 CONSULTATION
3.2 DESIGN STANDARDS
3.3 LIGHTING SYSTEM
3.4 EMERGENCY LIGHTING
3.5 LUMINAIRES
3.6 ELECTRICITY SUPPLY
3.7 INSTALLATION
3.8 APPLICATION FOR ELECTRICITY SUPPLY AND CHANGE OF CONSUMERSHIP
3.9 AS-FITTIED DRAWINGS, ILLUMINANCE READINGS & TEST REPORTS
3.10 MODEL ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATION

4. HIGH MAST LIGHTING
4.1 GENERAL
4.2 APPLICATION 31
4.3 DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS FOR HIGH MAST LIGHTING
4.4 APPLICATION FOR ELECTRICITY SUPPLY AND CHANGE OF CONSUMERSHIP
4.5 AS-FITTED DRAWINGS, ILLUMINANCE READINGS & TEST REPORTS
4.6 MODEL SPECIFICATION FOR HIGH MAST LIGHTING

5. TUNNEL LIGHTING
5.1 GENERAL
5.2 LIGHTING SYSTEM
5.3 CONSIDERATIONS FOR SHORT TUNNEL LIGHTING
5.4 DESIGN STANDARDS
5.5 STOPPING SIGHT DISTANCE
5.6 DAYTIME LIGHTING
5.7 NIGHTTIME LIGHTING
5.8 LUMINANCE OF THE WALLS
5.9 UNIFORMITY
5.10 GLARE CONTROL AND AVOIDANCE OF FLICKER
5.11 EMERGENCY LIGHTING
5.12 BI-DIRECTIONAL TRAFFIC
5.13 POWER SUPPLIES AND DISTRIBUTION CABLES
5.14 DESIGN PARAMETERS & CRITERIA
5.15 LIGHTING CONTROL SYSTEM
5.16 LAMPS
5.17 LUMINAIRES
5.18 ENERGY CONSIDERATIONS
5.19 LIGHTING DESIGN SUBMISSION
5.20 STATUTORY STANDARDS
5.21 SPARE EQUIPMENT
5.22 APPLICATION FOR ELECTRICITY SUPPLY AND CHANGE OF CONSUMERSHIP
5.23 AS-FITTED DRAWINGS, TEST REPORTS AND SOFTWARE PROTOCOLS

6. LIGHTING FOR NOISE ENCLOSURE
6.1 GENERAL
6.2 DESIGN STANDARDS
6.3 UNIFORMITY, GLARE AND FLICKER EFFECT OF DAYLIGHT PENETRATION
6.4 DETAILED DESIGN OF NOISE ENCLOSURE LIGHTING
6.5 DAYTIME LIGHTING
6.6 NIGHTTIME LIGHTING
6.7 UNIFORMITY AND GLARE CONTROL
6.8 AVOIDANCE OF FLICKER
6.9 EMERGENCY LIGHTING
6.10 BI-DIRECTIONAL TRAFFIC
6.11 POWER SUPPLIES AND DISTRIBUTION CABLES
6.12 DESIGN PARAMETERS AND CRITERIA
6.13 LIGHTING CONTROL SYSTEM
6.14 LAMPS AND LUMINAIRES
6.15 LIGHTING DESIGN SUBMISSION
6.16 STATUTORY STANDARDS
6.17 SPARE EQUIPMENT
6.18 APPLICATION FOR ELECTRICITY SUPPLY AND CHANGE OF CONSUMERSHIP
6.19 AS-FITTED DRAWINGS, TEST REPORTS AND SOFTWARE PROTOCOLS

7. GANTRY AND DIRECTIONAL SIGN LIGHTING
7.1 GENERAL
7.2 DESIGN STANDARDS
7.3 DESIGN CALCULATIONS
7.4 LANTERN ARRANGEMENT
7.5 MODE OF OPERATION
7.6 LUMINAIRES
7.7 MOUNTING DETAILS
7.8 ELECTRICITY SUPPLY
7.9 INSPECTION
7.10 SPARE PARTS
7.11 AS-FITTED DRAWINGS & LUMINANCE/ILLUMINANCE READING

8. ROAD LIGHTING
8.1 GENERAL
8.2 ROAD CLASSIFICATION
8.3 DESIGN STANDARDS
8.4 DESIGN LAYOUT
8.5 DESIGN METHOD
8.6 OTHER CONSIDERATIONS
8.7 CHOICE OF EQUIPMENT
8.8 DESIGN RECOMMENDATION FOR DECORATIVE ROAD LIGHTING
8.9 ELECTRICITY SUPPLY

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Test-Driven Development with Python

Test-Driven Development with Python

CONTENTS

I. The Basics of TDD and Django
1. Getting Django Set Up Using a Functional Test
2. Extending Our Functional Test Using the unittest Module
3. Testing a Simple Home Page with Unit Tests
4. What Are We Doing with All These Tests?
5. Saving User Input
6. Getting to the Minimum Viable Site

II. Web Development Sine Qua Nons
7. Prettification: Layout and Styling, and What to Test About It
8. Testing Deployment Using a Staging Site
9. Automating Deployment with Fabric
10. Input Validation and Test Organisation
11. A Simple Form
12. More Advanced Forms
13. Dipping Our Toes, Very Tentatively, into JavaScript
14. Deploying Our New Code

III. More Advanced Topics
15. User Authentication, Integrating Third-Party Plugins, and Mocking with JavaScript
16. Server-Side Authentication and Mocking in Python
17. Test Fixtures, Logging, and Server-Side Debugging
18. Finishing “My Lists”: Outside-In TDD
19. Test Isolation, and “Listening to Your Tests”
20. Continuous Integration (CI)
21. The Token Social Bit, the Page Pattern, and an Exercise for the Reader
22. Fast Tests, Slow Tests, and Hot Lava

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Essential Coding Theory

Essential Coding Theory

I: Basics

Chapter 1: The Fundamental Question
Chapter 2: A Look at Some Nicely Behaved Codes: Linear Codes
Chapter 3: Probability as Fancy Counting and the q-ary Entropy Function

II: Combinatorics

Chapter 4: What Can and Cannot Be Done-I
Chapter 5: The Greatest Code of Them All: Reed-Solomon Codes
Chapter 6: What Happens When the Noise is Stochastic: Shannon’s Theorem
Chapter 7: Bridging the Gap Between Shannon and Hamming: List Decoding
Chapter 8: What Cannot be Done- II

III: Code Constructions

Chapter 9: From Large to Small Alphabets: Code Concatenation
Chapter 10: Codes from Graphs: Expander Codes

IV: Algorithms

Chapter 11: Decoding Concatenated Codes
Chapter 12: Efficiently Achieving the Capacity of the BSCp
Chapter 13: Efficient Decoding of Reed-Solomon Codes
Chapter 14: Efficiently Achieving List Decoding Capacity

V: Applications

Chapter 15: Cutting Data Down to Size: Hashing
Chapter 16: Securing Your Fingerprints: Fuzzy Vaults
Chapter 17: Finding Defectives: Group Testing

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Handbook of Diagnostic Radiology Physics

Handbook of Diagnostic Radiology Physics

1. FUN DAMENTALS OF ATOMIC AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS
1.1. Introduction
1.2. Classification of Radiation
1.2.1. Electromagnetic radiation
1.2.2. Particulate radiation
1.2.3. Ionizing and non-ionizing radiations
1.3. Atomic and Nuclear Structure
1.3.1. Basic definitions
1.3.2. Atomic structure
1.4. X rays7
1.4.1. The production of characteristic X rays and Auger electrons
1.4.2. Radiation from an accelerated charge, bremsstrahlung

2. Interactions of Radiation With Matter
2.1. Introduction
2.2. Interactions of photons with matter
2.2.1. Photoelectric effect
2.2.2. Thomson scattering
2.2.3. Coherent (Rayleigh) scattering
2.2.4. Compton scattering by free electrons
2.2.5. Scattering and energy transfer coefficients
2.2.6. Incoherent scattering
2.2.7. Pair and triplet production
2.3. Photon Attenuation Coefficients
2.4. INTERACTIONS OF ELECTRONS WITH MATTE R
2.4.1. Ionizational (collisional) interactions and ionizational stopping power
2.4.2. Radiative interactions and radiative stopping power
2.4.3. Total stopping power
2.4.4. Stopping power in compounds and mixtures
2.4.5. Linear energy transfer
2.5. Data sources

3. Fundamentals of Dosimetry
3.1. Introduction
3.2. Quantities and Units Used for Describing the Interaction of Ionizing Radiation with Matter
3.3. Charged Particle Equilibrium in Dosimetry
3.4. Cavity Theory
3.5. Practical dosimetry with ion chambers

4. Measures of Image Quality
4.1. Introduction
4.2. IMAGE THEORY FUNDAMENTALS
4.3. Contrast
4.4. Unsharpness
4.5. Noise
4.6. Analysis of Signal AND Noise

5. X ray Production
5.1. Introduction
5.2. Fundamentals of X ray Production
5.3. X r ay Tubes
5.4. Energizing and Controlling the X ray Tube
5.5. X ray Tube and Generator Ratings
5.6. Collimation and Filtration
5.7. Factors Influencing X ray spectra and output
5.8. Filtration

6. Projection radiography
6.1. Introduction
6.2. X RAY IMAGE FORMATION
6.2.1. Components of an imaging system
6.2.2. Geometry of projection radiography
6.2.3. Effects of projection geometry
6.2.4. Magnification imaging
6.2.5. Contrast agents
6.2.6. Dual energy imaging
6.2.7. Technique selection
6.3. SCATTE RED RADIATION IN PROJECTION RADIOGRAPHY
6.3.1. Origins of scattered radiation
6.3.2. Magnitude of scatter
6.3.3. Effect of scatter
6.3.4. Methods of scatter reduction — antiscatter grids
6.3.5. Other methods of scatter reduction

7. Receptors for Projection Radiography
7.1. Introduction
7.2. General properties of receptors
7.3. FILM AND SCREEN FILM SYSTEMS
7.3.1. Systems
7.3.2. The screen
7.3.3. Photographic film and the photographic process
7.3.4. Greyscale characteristics of film images
7.3.5. Reciprocity
7.3.6. Screen film imaging characteristics
7.4. Digital Receptors
7.4.1. Digital imaging systems
7.4.2. Computed radiography
7.4.3. Digital radiography
7.4.4. Other systems
7.4.5. Artefacts of digital images
7.4.6. Comparisons of digital and analogue systems

8. Fluoroscopic Imaging Systems
8.1. Introduction
8.2. Fluoroscopic equipment
8.2.1. The fluoroscopic imaging chain
8.2.2. Automatic exposure control
8.2.3. Electronic magnification
8.3. Imaging performance and equipment configuration
8.4. Adjunct imaging modes
8.5. Application Specific Design
8.5.1. Remote fluoroscopy systems
8.5.2. Vascular and interventional radiology
8.5.3. Cardiology.
8.5.4. Neuroradiology
8.5.5. Mobile fluoroscopes
8.6. Auxiliary TO PICS
8.7. Dosimetric considerations in fluoroscopy

9. Mammography
9.1. Introduction
9.2. Radiological requirements for mammography
9.3. X ray equipment
9.4. Image receptors
9.5. Display of mammograms
9.6. Breast tomosynthesis
9.7. Breast CT
9.8. Computer aided diagnosis
9.9. Stereotactic biopsy systems
9.10. Radiation dose

10. Special topics in Radiography
10.1. Introduction
10.2. Dental Radiography
10.3. Mobile Radiography and Fluoroscopy
10.4. DXA
10.5. Conventional Tomography and Tomosynthesis

11. Computed Tomography
11.1. Introduction
11.2. Principles of CT
11.3. The CT Imaging System
11.3.1. Historical and current acquisition configurations
11.3.2. Gantry and table
11.3.3. The X ray tube and generator
11.3.4. Collimation and filtration
11.3.5. Detectors
11.4. Image reconstruction and processing
11.5. Acquisition
11.6. CT Image Quality

12. Physics of ultrasound
12.1. Introduction
12.2. Ultrasonic Plane Waves
12.3. Ultrasonic Properties of Biological Tissue
12.4. Ultrasonic Transduction
12.4.1. Piezoelectric devices
12.4.2. Transmitted pulse
12.4.3. Radiation and diffraction
12.5. Doppler Physics
12.5.1. The Doppler effect
12.5.2. Continuous wave Doppler
12.5.3. Pulsed wave Doppler
12.6. Biological Effects of Ultrasound

13. ultrasound IMAGING
13.1. Introduction
13.2. Array system Principles
13.2.1. Electronic focusing and beam steering
13.2.2. Array beam characteristics
13.2.3. Multifocal imaging methods
13.3. B-Mode Instrumentation and Signal Processing
13.4. Modern Imaging Methods
13.5. Colour Flow Imaging
13.5.1. Flow imaging modes
13.5.2. Tissue Doppler imaging
13.6. Image Artefacts and Quality Assurance

14. Physics of Magnetic Resonance
14.1. Introduction
14.2. NMR
14.3. RELAXATION and tissue contrast
14.4. MR spectroscopy
14.5. Spatial encoding and basic pulse sequences
14.5.1. Slice selection
14.5.2. Frequency and phase encoding
14.5.3. Field of view and spatial resolution
14.5.4. Gradient echo imaging
14.5.5. Spin echo imaging
14.5.6. Multislice imaging
14.5.7. 3-D imaging
14.5.8. Measurement of relaxation time constants

15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging
15.1. Introduction
15.2. Hardware
15.2.1. The static magnetic field subsystem
15.2.2. The radiofrequency subsystem
15.2.3. Gradient coil design and specifications
15.2.4. Computer and control systems
15.2.5. Common imaging options
15.3. Basic image quality issues
15.3.1. B0 field strength, homogeneity and shimming
15.3.2. B1 homogeneity and flip angle adjustment
15.3.3. Phantoms, equipment assessment and coil loading
15.3.4. SNR and contrast to noise ratio
15.3.5. Spatial resolution
15.3.6. Image acquisition time
15.4. MR Image acquisition and reconstruction
15.5. Artefacts
15.6. Safety and bioeffects

16. Digital Imaging
16.1. Introduction
16.2. Image Encoding and Display
16.3. Digital Image Management
16.4. Networking
16.5. Image Compression

17. Im age Post-Processing and Analysis
17.1. Introduction
17.2. Deterministic Image Processing and Feature Enhancement
17.2.1. Spatial filtering and noise removal
17.2.2. Edge, ridge and simple shape detection
17.3. Image Segmentation
17.4. Image Registration
17.5. Open source tools for image analysis

18. Image Perception and Assessment
18.1. Introduction
18.2. The human visual system
18.3. Specifications of Observ er Performance
18.4. Experimental Methodologies
18.4.1. Contrast–detail methodology
18.4.2. Forced choice experiments
18.4.3. ROC experiments
18.5. Observ er models

19. Quality Management
19.1. Introduction
19.2. Definitions
19.3. QMS Requirements
19.3.1. General requirements
19.3.2. The role of the medical physicist
19.4. QA programme for equipment
19.5. Example of a QC Programme
19.6. Data management

20. Radiation biology
20.1. Introduction
20.1.1. Deterministic and stochastic responses
20.1.2. Diagnostic radiology
20.1.3. International organizations on radiation effects
20.2. Radiation Injury to Deoxyribonucleic acid
20.2.1. Structure of deoxyribonucleic acid
20.2.2. Radiation chemistry: Direct and indirect effects
20.2.3. DNA damage
20.3. DNA repair
20.4. Radiation Induced Chromosome damage and Biological Dosimetry
20.5. The cell cycle
20.6. Surv ival Curv e Theory
20.7. Concepts of Cell death
20.8. Cellular Recovery Processes
20.9. Relative Biological Effectiveness
20.10. Carcinogenesis (stochastic)
20.11. Radiation Injury to Tissues (deterministic)
20.12. Radiation Pathology: Acute and late effects
20.13. Radiation Genetics: Radiation Effects on Fertility
20.14. Fetal irradiation

21. Instrumentation for Dosimetry
21.1. Introduction
21.2. Radiation detectors and dosimeters
21.3. Ionization chambers
21.4. Semiconductor dosimeters
21.5. Other Dosimeters
21.6. Dosimeter Calibration
21.6.1. Standard free air ionization chamber
21.6.2. SSDL calibration
21.6.3. Field calibration
21.7. Instruments for measuring tube voltage and Time .
21.8. Instruments for Occupational and public exposure measurements

22. Patient dosimetry
22.1. Introduction
22.2. Application Specific Quantities
22.3. Risk related quantities
22.4. Measuring Application Specific Quantities
22.4.1. General considerations
22.4.2. Measurements using phantoms and patients
22.4.3. Free-in-air measurements
22.4.4. Radiography
22.4.5. Fluoroscopy
22.4.6. Mammography
22.4.7. CT
22.4.8. Dental radiography
22.5. Estimating Risk Related Quantities
22.6. Dose Management

23. Justification and Op timization in Clinical Practice
23.1. Introduction
23.2. Justification
23.3. Optimization
23.4. Clinical audit
24. Radiation Protection
24.1. Introduction
24.2. The ICRP system of radiological protection
24.3. Implementation of Radiation Protection in the Radiology Facility
24.4. Medical Exposures
24.5. Occupational Exposure
24.6. Public Exposure in Radiology Practices
24.7. Shielding

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