**Handbook of thermodynamics, heat transfer and fluid flow**

TOC

MODUL 1 THERMODYNAMICS

THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES

Mass and Weight

Specific Volume

Density

Specific Gravity

Humidity

Intensive and Extensive Properties

TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS

Temperature

Temperature Scales

Pressure

Pressure Scales

ENERGY, WORK, AND HEAT

Energy

Potential Energy

Kinetic Energy

Specific Internal Energy

Specific P-V Energy

Specific Enthalpy

Work

Heat

Entropy

Energy and Power Equivalences

THERMODYNAMIC SYSTEMS AND PROCESSES

Thermodynamic Systems and Surroundings

Types of Thermodynamic Systems

Thermodynamic Equilibrium

Control Volume

Steady State

Thermodynamic Process

Cyclic Process

Reversible Process

Irreversible Process

Adiabatic Process

Isentropic Process

Polytropic Process

Throttling Process

CHANGE OF PHASE

Classification of Properties

Saturation

Saturated and Subcooled Liquids

Quality

Moisture Content

Saturated and Superheated Vapors

Constant Pressure Heat Addition

Critical Point

Fusion

Sublimation

Triple Point

Condensation

PROPERTY DIAGRAMS AND STEAM TABLES

Property Diagrams

Pressure-Temperature (P-T) Diagram

Pressure-Specific Volume (P-v) Diagram

Pressure-Enthalpy (P-h) Diagram

Enthalpy-Temperature (h-T) Diagram

Temperature-Entropy (T-s) Diagram

Enthalpy-Entropy (h-s) or Mollier Diagram

Steam Tables

FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

First Law of Thermodynamics

SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

Second Law of Thermodynamics

Entropy

Carnot’s Principle

Carnot Cycle

Diagrams of Ideal and Real Processes

Power Plant Components

Heat Rejection

Typical Steam Cycle

Causes of Inefficiency

COMPRESSION PROCESSES

Boyle’s and Charles’ Laws

Ideal Gas Law

Fluid

Compressibility of Fluids

Constant Pressure Process

Constant Volume Process

Effects of Pressure Changes on Fluid Properties

Effects of Temperature Changes on Fluid Properties

APPENDIX A Thermodynamics

MODUL 2 HEAT TRANSFER

HEAT TRANSFER TERMINOLOGY

Heat and Temperature

Heat and Work

Modes of Transferring Heat

Heat Flux

Thermal Conductivity

Log Mean Temperature Difference

Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient

Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient

Bulk Temperature

CONDUCTION HEAT TRANSFER

Conduction

Conduction-Rectangular Coordinates

Equivalent Resistance Method

Electrical Analogy

Conduction-Cylindrical Coordinates

CONVECTION HEAT TRANSFER

Convection

Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient

Convection Heat Transfer

RADIANT HEAT TRANSFER

Thermal Radiation

Black Body Radiation

Emissivity

Radiation Configuration Factor

HEAT EXCHANGERS

Heat Exchangers

Parallel and Counter-Flow Designs

Non-Regenerative Heat Exchanger

Regenerative Heat Exchanger

Cooling Towers

Log Mean Temperature Difference Application to Heat Exchangers

Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient

BOILING HEAT TRANSFER

Boiling

Nucleate Boiling

Bulk Boiling

Film Boiling

Departure from Nucleate Boiling and Critical Heat Flux

HEAT GENERATION

Heat Generation

Flux Profiles

Thermal Limits

Average Linear Power Density

Maximum Local Linear Power Density

Temperature Profiles

Volumetric Thermal Source Strength

Fuel Changes During Reactor Operation

DECAY HEAT

Reactor Decay Heat Production

Calculation of Decay heat

Decay Heat Limits

Decay Heat Removal

MODUL 3 FLUID FLOW

CONTINUITY EQUATION

Introduction

Properties of Fluids

Buoyancy

Compressibility

Relationship Between Depth and Pressure

Pascal’s Law

Control Volume

Volumetric Flow Rate

Mass Flow Rate

Conservation of Mass

Steady-State Flow

Continuity Equation

LAMINAR AND TURBULENT FLOW

Flow Regimes

Laminar Flow

Turbulent Flow

Flow Velocity Profiles

Average (Bulk) Velocity

Viscosity

Ideal Fluid

Reynolds Number

BERNOULLI’S EQUATION

General Energy Equation

Simplified Bernoulli Equation

Head

Energy Conversions in Fluid Systems

Restrictions on the Simplified Bernoulli Equation

Extended Bernoulli

Application of Bernoulli’s Equation to a Venturi

HEAD LOSS

Head Loss

Friction Factor

Darcy’s Equation

Minor Losses

Equivalent Piping Length

NATURAL CIRCULATION

Forced and Natural Circulation

Thermal Driving Head

Conditions Required for Natural Circulation

Example of Natural Circulation Cooling

Flow Rate and Temperature Difference

TWO-PHASE FLUID FLOW

Two-Phase Fluid Flow

Flow Instability

Pipe Whip

Water Hammer

Pressure spike

Steam Hammer

Operational Considerations

CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS

Energy Conversion in a Centrifugal Pump

Operating Characteristics of a Centrifugal Pump

Cavitation

Net Positive Suction Head

Pump Laws

System Characteristic Curve

System Operating Point

System Use of Multiple Centrifugal Pumps

Centrifugal Pumps in Parallel

Centrifugal Pumps in Series

APPENDIX B Fluid Flow

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