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1. Number Systems
2. Fundamental Logic Circuits
3. Special Logic Circuits
Computers are now employed wherever repeated calculations or the processing of huge amounts of data is needed. The greatest applications are found in the military, scientific, and commercial fields. They have applications that range from mail sorting, through engineering design, to the identification and destruction of enemy targets. The advantages of digital computers include speed, accuracy, and manpower savings. Often computers are able to take over routine jobs and release personnel for more important work¾work that cannot be handled by a computer. People and computers do not normally speak the same language. Methods of translating information into forms that are understandable and usable to both are necessary. Humans generally speak in words and numbers expressed in the decimal number system, while computers only understand coded electronic pulses that represent digital information.
In this chapter you will learn about number systems in general and about binary, octal, and hexadecimal (which we will refer to as hex) number systems specifically. Methods for converting numbers in the binary, octal, and hex systems to equivalent numbers in the decimal system (and vice versa) will also be described. You will see that these number systems can be easily converted to the electronic signals necessary for digital equipment.
INTRODUCTION TO LOGIC CIRCUITS
In chapter 1 you learned that the two digits of the binary number system can be represented by the state or condition of electrical or electronic devices. A binary 1 can be represented by a switch that is closed, a lamp that is lit, or a transistor that is conducting. Conversely, a binary 0 would be represented by the same devices in the opposite state: the switch open, the lamp off, or the transistor in cut-off.
In this chapter you will study the four basic logic gates that make up the foundation for digital equipment. You will see the types of logic that are used in equipment to accomplish the desired results. This chapter includes an introduction to Boolean algebra, the logic mathematics system used with digital equipment. Certain Boolean expressions are used in explanation of the basic logic gates, and their expressions will be used as each logic gate is introduced.
SPECIAL LOGIC CIRCUITS
Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to do the following:
1. Recognize the types of special logic circuits used in digital equipment.
2. Identify exclusive OR and exclusive NOR circuits and interpret their respective Truth Tables.
3. Identify adder and subtracter circuits.
4. Identify the types of flip-flops used in digital equipment and their uses.
5. Identify counters, registers, and clock circuits.
6. Describe the elements that make up logic families ¾ RTL, DTL, TTL, CMOS.
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