**PLC – Programmable Logic Controller**

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TOC

2. PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS

2.1 INTRODUCTION

2.1.1 Ladder Logic

2.1.2 Programming

2.1.3 PLC Connections

2.1.4 Ladder Logic Inputs

2.1.5 Ladder Logic Outputs

2.2 A CASE STUDY

2.3 SUMMARY

2.4 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

2.5 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

2.6 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS

3. PLC HARDWARE

3.1 INTRODUCTION

3.2 INPUTS AND OUTPUTS

3.2.1 Inputs

3.2.2 Output Modules

3.3 RELAYS

3.4 A CASE STUDY

3.5 ELECTRICAL WIRING DIAGRAMS

3.5.1 JIC Wiring Symbols

3.6 SUMMARY

3.7 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

3.8 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

3.9 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS

4. LOGICAL SENSORS

4.1 INTRODUCTION

4.2 SENSOR WIRING

4.2.1 Switches

4.2.2 Transistor Transistor Logic (TTL)

4.2.3 Sinking/Sourcing

4.2.4 Solid State Relays

4.3 PRESENCE DETECTION

4.3.1 Contact Switches

4.3.2 Reed Switches

4.3.3 Optical (Photoelectric) Sensors

4.3.4 Capacitive Sensors

4.3.5 Inductive Sensors

4.3.6 Ultrasonic

4.3.7 Hall Effect

4.3.8 Fluid Flow

4.4 SUMMARY

4.5 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

4.6 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

4.7 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS

5. LOGICAL ACTUATORS

5.1 INTRODUCTION

5.2 SOLENOIDS

5.3 VALVES

5.4 CYLINDERS

5.5 HYDRAULICS

5.6 PNEUMATICS

5.7 MOTORS

5.8 COMPUTERS

5.9 OTHERS

5.10 SUMMARY

5.11 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

5.12 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

5.13 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS

6. BOOLEAN LOGIC DESIGN

6.1 INTRODUCTION

6.2 BOOLEAN ALGEBRA

6.3 LOGIC DESIGN

6.3.1 Boolean Algebra Techniques

6.4 COMMON LOGIC FORMS

6.4.1 Complex Gate Forms

6.4.2 Multiplexers

6.5 SIMPLE DESIGN CASES

6.5.1 Basic Logic Functions

6.5.2 Car Safety System

6.5.3 Motor Forward/Reverse

6.5.4 A Burglar Alarm

6.6 SUMMARY

6.7 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

6.8 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

6.9 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS

7. KARNAUGHMAPS

7.1 INTRODUCTION

7.2 SUMMARY

7.3 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

7.4 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

7.5 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS

8. PLC OPERATION

8.1 INTRODUCTION

8.2 OPERATION SEQUENCE

8.2.1 The Input and Output Scans

8.2.2 The Logic Scan

8.3 PLC STATUS

8.4 MEMORY TYPES

8.5 SOFTWARE BASED PLCS

8.6 SUMMARY

8.7 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

8.8 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

8.9 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS

9. LATCHES, TIMERS, COUNTERS AND MORE

9.1 INTRODUCTION

9.2 LATCHES

9.3 TIMERS

9.4 COUNTERS

9.5 MASTER CONTROL RELAYS (MCRs)

9.6 INTERNAL RELAYS

9.7 DESIGN CASES

9.7.1 Basic Counters And Timers

9.7.2 More Timers And Counters

9.7.3 Deadman Switch

9.7.4 Conveyor

9.7.5 Accept/Reject Sorting

9.7.6 Shear Press

9.8 SUMMARY

9.9 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

9.10 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

9.11 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS

10. STRUCTURED LOGIC DESIGN

10.1 INTRODUCTION

10.2 PROCESS SEQUENCE BITS

10.3 TIMING DIAGRAMS

10.4 DESIGN CASES

10.5 SUMMARY

10.6 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

10.7 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

10.8 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS

11. FLOWCHART BASED DESIGN

11.1 INTRODUCTION

11.2 BLOCK LOGIC

11.3 SEQUENCE BITS

11.4 SUMMARY

11.5 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

11.6 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

11.7 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS

12. STATE BASED DESIGN

12.1 INTRODUCTION

12.1.1 State Diagram Example

12.1.2 Conversion to Ladder Logic

Block Logic Conversion

State Equations

State-Transition Equations

12.2 SUMMARY

12.3 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

12.4 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

12.5 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS

13. NUMBERS AND DATA

13.1 INTRODUCTION

13.2 NUMERICAL VALUES

13.2.1 Binary

Boolean Operations

Binary Mathematics

13.2.2 Other Base Number Systems

13.2.3 BCD (Binary Coded Decimal)

13.3 DATA CHARACTERIZATION

13.3.1 ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)

13.3.2 Parity

13.3.3 Checksums

13.3.4 Gray Code

13.4 SUMMARY

13.5 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

13.6 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

13.7 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS

14. PLCMEMORY

14.1 INTRODUCTION

14.2 MEMORY ADDRESSES

14.3 PROGRAM FILES

14.4 DATA FILES

14.4.1 User Bit Memory

14.4.2 Timer Counter Memory

14.4.3 PLC Status Bits (for PLC-5s and Micrologix)

14.4.4 User Function Control Memory

14.4.5 Integer Memory

14.4.6 Floating Point Memory

14.5 SUMMARY

14.6 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

14.7 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

14.8 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS

15. LADDER LOGIC FUNCTIONS

15.1 INTRODUCTION

15.2 DATA HANDLING

15.2.1 Move Functions

15.2.2 Mathematical Functions

15.2.3 Conversions

15.2.4 Array Data Functions

Statistics

Block Operations

15.3 LOGICAL FUNCTIONS

15.3.1 Comparison of Values

15.3.2 Boolean Functions

15.4 DESIGN CASES

15.4.1 Simple Calculation

15.4.2 For-Next

15.4.3 Series Calculation

15.4.4 Flashing Lights

15.5 SUMMARY

15.6 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

15.7 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

15.8 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS

16. ADVANCED LADDER LOGIC FUNCTIONS

16.1 INTRODUCTION

16.2 LIST FUNCTIONS

16.2.1 Shift Registers

16.2.2 Stacks

16.2.3 Sequencers

16.3 PROGRAM CONTROL

16.3.1 Branching and Looping

16.3.2 Fault Detection and Interrupts

16.4 INPUT AND OUTPUT FUNCTIONS

16.4.1 Immediate I/O Instructions

16.4.2 Block Transfer Functions

16.5 DESIGN TECHNIQUES

16.5.1 State Diagrams

16.6 DESIGN CASES

16.6.1 If-Then

16.6.2 Traffic Light

16.7 SUMMARY

16.8 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

16.9 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

16.10 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS

17. OPEN CONTROLLERS

17.1 INTRODUCTION

17.2 IEC 61131

17.3 OPEN ARCHITECTURE CONTROLLERS

17.4 SUMMARY

17.5 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

17.6 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

17.7 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS

18. INSTRUCTION LIST PROGRAMMING

18.1 INTRODUCTION

18.2 THE IEC 61131 VERSION

18.3 THE ALLEN-BRADLEY VERSION

18.4 SUMMARY

18.5 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

18.6 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

18.7 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS

19. STRUCTURED TEXT PROGRAMMING

19.1 INTRODUCTION

19.2 THE LANGUAGE

19.3 SUMMARY

19.4 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

19.5 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

19.6 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS

20. SEQUENTIAL FUNCTION CHARTS

20.1 INTRODUCTION

20.2 A COMPARISON OF METHODS

20.3 SUMMARY

20.4 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

20.5 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

20.6 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS

21. FUNCTION BLOCK PROGRAMMING

21.1 INTRODUCTION

21.2 CREATING FUNCTION BLOCKS

21.3 DESIGN CASE

21.4 SUMMARY

21.5 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

21.6 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

21.7 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS

22. ANALOG INPUTS AND OUTPUTS

22.1 INTRODUCTION

22.2 ANALOG INPUTS

22.2.1 Analog Inputs With a PLC

22.3 ANALOG OUTPUTS

22.3.1 Analog Outputs With A PLC

22.3.2 Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) Outputs

22.3.3 Shielding

22.4 DESIGN CASES

22.4.1 Process Monitor

22.5 SUMMARY

22.6 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

22.7 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

22.8 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS

23. CONTINUOUS SENSORS

23.1 INTRODUCTION

23.2 INDUSTRIAL SENSORS

23.2.1 Angular Displacement

Potentiometers

23.2.2 Encoders

Tachometers

23.2.3 Linear Position

Potentiometers

Linear Variable Differential Transformers (LVDT)

Moire Fringes

Accelerometers

23.2.4 Forces and Moments

Strain Gages

Piezoelectric

23.2.5 Liquids and Gases

Pressure

Venturi Valves

Coriolis Flow Meter

Magnetic Flow Meter

Ultrasonic Flow Meter

Vortex Flow Meter

Positive Displacement Meters

Pitot Tubes

23.2.6 Temperature

Resistive Temperature Detectors (RTDs)

Thermocouples

Thermistors

Other Sensors

23.2.7 Light

Light Dependant Resistors (LDR)

23.2.8 Chemical

pH

Conductivity

23.2.9 Others

23.3 INPUT ISSUES

23.4 SENSOR GLOSSARY

23.5 SUMMARY

23.6 REFERENCES

23.7 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

23.8 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

23.9 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS

24. CONTINUOUS ACTUATORS

24.1 INTRODUCTION

24.2 ELECTRIC MOTORS

24.2.1 Basic Brushed DC Motors

24.2.2 AC Motors

24.2.3 Brushless DC Motors

24.2.4 Stepper Motors

24.2.5 Wound Field Motors

24.3 HYDRAULICS

24.4 OTHER SYSTEMS

24.5 SUMMARY

24.6 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

24.7 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

24.8 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS

25. CONTINUOUS CONTROL

25.1 INTRODUCTION

25.2 CONTROL OF LOGICAL ACTUATOR SYSTEMS

25.3 CONTROL OF CONTINUOUS ACTUATOR SYSTEMS

25.3.1 Block Diagrams

25.3.2 Feedback Control Systems

25.3.3 Proportional Controllers

25.3.4 PID Control Systems

25.4 DESIGN CASES

25.4.1 Oven Temperature Control

25.4.2 Water Tank Level Control

25.5 SUMMARY

25.6 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

25.7 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

25.8 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS

26. FUZZY LOGIC

26.1 INTRODUCTION

26.2 COMMERCIAL CONTROLLERS

26.3 REFERENCES

26.4 SUMMARY

26.5 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

26.6 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

26.7 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS

27. SERIAL COMMUNICATION

27.1 INTRODUCTION

27.2 SERIAL COMMUNICATIONS

27.2.1 RS-232

ASCII Functions

27.3 PARALLEL COMMUNICATIONS

27.4 DESIGN CASES

27.4.1 PLC Interface To a Robot

27.5 SUMMARY

27.6 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

27.7 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

27.8 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS

28. NETWORKING

28.1 INTRODUCTION

28.1.1 Topology

28.1.2 OSI Network Model

28.1.3 Networking Hardware

28.1.4 Control Network Issues

28.2 NETWORK STANDARDS

28.2.1 Devicenet

28.2.2 CANbus

28.2.3 Controlnet

28.2.4 Ethernet

28.2.5 Profibus

28.2.6 Sercos

28.3 PROPRIETARY NETWORKS

28.3.1 Data Highway

28.4 NETWORK COMPARISONS

28.5 DESIGN CASES

28.5.1 Devicenet

28.6 SUMMARY

28.7 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

28.8 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

28.9 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS

29. INTERNET

29.1 INTRODUCTION

29.1.1 Computer Addresses

IPV6

29.1.2 Phone Lines

29.1.3 Mail Transfer Protocols

29.1.4 FTP – File Transfer Protocol

29.1.5 HTTP – Hypertext Transfer Protocol

29.1.6 Novell

29.1.7 Security

Firewall

IP Masquerading

29.1.8 HTML – Hyper Text Markup Language

29.1.9 URLs

29.1.10 Encryption

29.1.11 Compression

29.1.12 Clients and Servers

29.1.13 Java

29.1.14 Javascript

29.1.15 CGI

29.1.16 ActiveX

29.1.17 Graphics

29.2 DESIGN CASES

29.2.1 Remote Monitoring System

29.3 SUMMARY

29.4 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

29.5 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

29.6 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS

30. HUMANMACHINE INTERFACES (HMI)

30.1 INTRODUCTION

30.2 HMI/MMI DESIGN

30.3 DESIGN CASES

30.4 SUMMARY

30.5 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

30.6 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

30.7 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS

31. ELECTRICAL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

31.1 INTRODUCTION

31.2 ELECTRICAL WIRING DIAGRAMS

31.2.1 Selecting Voltages

31.2.2 Grounding

31.2.3 Wiring

31.2.4 Suppressors

31.2.5 PLC Enclosures

31.2.6 Wire and Cable Grouping

31.3 FAIL-SAFE DESIGN

31.4 SAFETY RULES SUMMARY

31.5 REFERENCES

31.6 SUMMARY

31.7 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

31.8 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

31.9 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS

32. SOFTWARE ENGINEERING

32.1 INTRODUCTION

32.1.1 Fail Safe Design

32.2 DEBUGGING

32.2.1 Troubleshooting

32.2.2 Forcing

32.3 PROCESS MODELLING

32.4 PROGRAMMING FOR LARGE SYSTEMS

32.4.1 Developing a Program Structure

32.4.2 Program Verification and Simulation

32.5 DOCUMENTATION

32.6 COMMISIONING

32.7 REFERENCES

32.8 SUMMARY

32.9 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

32.10 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

32.11 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS

33. SELECTING A PLC

33.1 INTRODUCTION

33.2 SPECIAL I/O MODULES

33.3 SUMMARY

33.4 PRACTICE PROBLEMS

33.5 PRACTICE PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

33.6 ASSIGNMENT PROBLEMS

34. FUNCTION REFERENCE

34.1 FUNCTION DESCRIPTIONS

34.1.1 General Functions

34.1.2 Program Control

34.1.3 Timers and Counters

34.1.4 Compare

34.1.5 Calculation and Conversion

34.1.6 Logical

34.1.7 Move

34.1.8 File

34.1.9 List

34.1.10 Program Control

34.1.11 Advanced Input/Output

34.1.12 String

34.2 DATA TYPES

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