Control and Topographic Surveying

Control and Topographic Surveying

File : pdf, 13.98 MB, 498 pages


Chapt 1 Introduction

Chapt 2 Overview of Topographic Surveying Techniques and Methods
Generic Considerations Applicable to all Drawings and Maps
SECTION I–Types of Surveys
Reconnaissance Topographic Surveys
Detailed Topographic Surveys
Reservation Boundary Surveys and Maps
Reservoir Clearing Surveys
Upland Disposal Area Surveys
Channel Improvement and Cutoff Surveys
Post-Flood High Water Mark Surveys
Route Surveys
Bridge Surveys
Site Plan Engineering Drawings
SECTION II–Survey Methods and Techniques
Older Topographic Surveying Methods
Total Stations
Real Time Kinematic (RTK) GPS
Terrestrial LIDAR (Laser) Scanning
Topographic Data Collection Procedures
Automated Field Data Collection
Methods of Delineating and Densifying Topographic Features

Chapt 3 Primary Control Surveys for Project Mapping
SECTION I–Traditional Horizontal Control Survey Techniques
Secondary or Temporary Horizontal Control
Bearing and Azimuth Determination
Electronic Distance Measurement
Coordinate Computations
Traverse Surveys
Traverse Survey Guidelines
Traverse Computations and Adjustments
Traverse Adjustment (Compass Rule)
Triangulation and Trilateration Surveys
SECTION II–Vertical Control Survey Techniques
Second-Order Leveling
Third-Order and Lower-Order Leveling
Calibrations and Adjustments
Care of Level Instruments Routine Maintenance and Care of Level Rods
Maintenance of Survey Instrument Accessories

Chapt 4 Accuracy Standards for Engineering, Construction, and Facility Management Control and Topographic Surveys
General Surveying and Mapping Specifications
Accuracy Standards for Engineering and Construction Surveying
Accuracy Standards for Maps and Related Geospatial Products
Photogrammetric Mapping Standards and Specifications
Cadastral or Real Property Survey Accuracy Standards
Hydrographic Surveying Accuracy Standards
Structural Deformation Survey Standards
Geodetic Control Survey Standards
State and Local Accuracy Standards
CADD/GIS Technology Center Standards
Mandatory Standards

Chapt 5
Geodetic Reference Datums and Local Coordinate Systems
SECTION I–Geodetic Reference Systems
Geodetic Coordinates
WGS 84 Reference Ellipsoid
Horizontal Datums and Reference Frames
SECTION II–Horizontal Coordinate Systems
Geographic Coordinates
State Plane Coordinate Systems
Grid Elevations, Scale Factors, and Convergence
Universal Transverse Mercator Coordinate System
The US Military Grid-Reference System (FM 3-34.331)
US National Grid System
Chainage-Offset Coordinate Systems Datum Conversions and Transformation Methods
Horizontal Transition Plan from NAD 27 to NAD 83
SECTION III–Vertical Reference Systems
National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 (NGVD 29)
North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88)
Other Vertical Reference Datums and Planes
Orthometric Elevations
WGS 84 Ellipsoidal Heights
Orthometric Height and WGS 84 Ellipsoidal Elevation Relationship
Geoid Undulations and Geoid Models
Using GPS to Densify Orthometric Elevations
Vertical Datum Transformations
Vertical Transition Plan from NGVD 29 to NAVD 88
Vertical Control in Areas Subjected to Subsidence or Sea Level Rise
Mandatory Standards

Chapt 6
Planning and Conducting Control and Topographic Surveys
Project Requirements from Using Agency
Topographic Survey Planning Checklist
Sources of Existing Geospatial/Survey Data
Project Control for Topographic Detail Surveys
Establishing NSRS Control at a Project Site
Project Control Densification Methods
Extending Control from a Local Project or Installation Network (Patrick AFB)
Extending Control from a Distant Network Using Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS)
On-Line Positioning User Service (OPUS)
Establishing Approximate Control for an Isolated
or OCONUS Construction Project
Determining Required Map Scale and Contour Interval
Recommended Guidelines for Army Installation Maps and Drawings
Topographic Survey Equipment Selection and Planning Guidance

Chapt 7 Field Data Collectors and Coordinate Geometry Functions
Field Survey Notes–Manual and Electronic
Functional Requirements of a Generic Data Collector
General Software Features on a Data Collector
Feature or Descriptor Codes for Topographic Field Data
Descriptor Codes and Level Assignments for Various Topographic Features
Feature and Attribute Libraries for Topographic Field Data
Control Commands for Connecting Feature Line Strings
Field Coordinate Geometry Options
General COGO Computation Routines
Total Station Resection Computations
Line-Line Intersection Computations

Chapt 8 Total Station Topographic Survey Procedures
Total Stations
Total Station Features and Operation
Reflectorless and Robotic Total Stations5
Field Equipment Inventory and Maintenance
Total Station Job Planning
Total Station Error Sources
General Total Station Operating Procedures
Total Station Angle Measurement and Traverse Techniques
Total Station Leveling Field Procedures
Positioning Topographic Features with a Total Station

Chapt 9 GPS Real Time Kinematic Topographic Survey Procedures
Purpose and Scope
RTK Field Techniques
Standard RTK Observing Procedures
Site Calibration
RTK Survey Field Data Collection Procedures and Checks
Guidance for Setting Construction Control Points Using RTK Techniques

Chapt 10 Terrestrial 3D Laser Scanners
Scanner Operation and Data Processing
Corps of Engineers Project Application: St. Lucie Lock and Dam, Jacksonville District
Corps of Engineers Project Application: Portuguese Dam Foundation Construction, Ponce, PR, Jacksonville District
Corps of Engineers Application: Steel Bayou Levee Surveys, Vicksburg District
Corps of Engineers Application: Structure Subsidence Survey, Philadelphia District

Chapt 11 Final Site Plan or Map Production Purpose
Overview of Topographic Survey Data Flow
Basic Definitions of Geospatial Data used in CADD or GIS Databases
SDSFIE Data Model
Data Collection and Processing Procedures for Topographic Surveys
Field Computers and Software for Viewing and Processing Data
Field Quality Control and Quality Assurance Checks
Cell Libraries Containing Corps of Engineers Standardized Symbology
Sheet and Model Files
Reference Files
Level Assignments for Surveying and Mapping

Chapt 12 Survey Documentation and Submittals General
Final Survey Report Format–Civil Works
Final Survey Report Format–Military
Field Note Keeping Procedures and Formats
Sample Topographic Survey Field Book Notes
Monument Descriptions
Standardized Coordinate File Coding (New Orleans District)
Creating Metadata for Topographic Surveys
Sample Submittal of Feature Data Accuracy
Deliverable QA Checklist
Mandatory Criteria

Chapt 13 Topographic Survey Contracting and Cost Estimating
General Contracting Policies and Procedures
Indefinite Delivery Contracts
Cost Estimates for Contracted Topographic Mapping IDCsTask Order Time and Cost Estimates
Task Order Request for Proposal
Government Cost Estimate for a Task Order
AE Services Request for Task Order Issuance
Labor Hour Task Orders for Construction Surveying Services
Hired-Labor Survey Cost Estimates

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7 thoughts on “Control and Topographic Surveying

  1. FM Liuma

    Our department of Land Surveying at the Malawi Polytechnic University of Malawi is looking for university partnership and exhchange programmes for both students and staff in order to improve our course deliveries. Please advise what I need to do. Thanking all in anticipation


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