Inherent Safety in Process Plant Design


1. Introduction

2. Safety

3. Evaluation of Safety
4. Some Safety Analysis Methods for Process Plant Design
4.1 Dow Fire and Explosion Hazard Index
4.2 Mond Index
4.3 Hazard and Operability Analysis (Hazop)
4.4 Prototype Index of Inherent Safety (PIIS)

5. Limitations of the Existing Safety Analysis Methods in Conceptual Process Design

6. Inherent Safety

6.1 The Principles of Inherent Safety
6.2 Inherent Safety in Preliminary Process Design
6.3 Evaluation of Inherent Safety

7. Factors Selected to Represent the Inherent Safety in Preliminary Process Design
7.1 Heat of Reaction
7.2 Hazardous Substances
7.2.1 Flammability
7.2.2 Explosiveness
7.2.3 Toxic Exposure
7.3 Corrosiveness
7.4 Chemical Interaction
7.5 Inventory
7.6 Temperature
7.7 Pressure
7.8 Equipment safety
7.9 Safe Process Structure

8. Inherent Safety Index
8.1 Total Index as an Approach
8.2 Calculation Method of the Index
9. The Weighting between Subindices of Inherent Safety Index
10. Subindices of Chemical Inherent Safety Index
10.1 Subindices of Reaction Hazards
10.1.1 Reaction Heat Subindex for the Main Reaction
10.1.2 Reaction Heat Subindex for the Side Reactions
10.1.3 Chemical Interaction Subindex
10.2 Subindices for Hazardous Substances
10.2.1 Flammability Subindex
10.2.2 Explosiveness Subindex
10.2.3 Toxic Exposure Subindex
10.2.4 Corrosiveness Subindex

11. Subindices for Process Inherent Safety Index
11.1 Inventory Subindex
11.2 Process Temperature Subindex
11.3 Process Pressure Subindex
11.4 Equipment Safety Subindex
11.4.1 Evaluation of Equipment Safety
11.4.2 Equipment Layout
11.4.3 Equipment Involved in Large Losses
11.4.4 Equipment in Other Indices
11.4.5 Equipment Failures and Their Evaluation
11.4.6 Equipment Safety Subindex for ISBL
11.4.7 Equipment Safety Subindex for OSBL
11.5 Safe Process Structure Subindex
11.5.1 Evaluation of Safe Process Structure
11.5.2 Sources of Experience Based Safety Information
11.5.3 Structure of the Database
11.5.4 Inherent Safety Index of Safe Process Structure
12. Case Study

13. Case-Based Reasoning for Safety Evaluation
13.1 Description of Prototype Application
13.1.1 Input and Output Parameters
13.1.2 Retrieval of Cases
13.2 Case Study
13.2.1 CBR on Process Level
13.2.2 CBR on the Reactor System
13.2.3 Score of the Safe Process Structure Subindex

14. Application of Inherent Safety Index for Computerized Process Synthesis
14.1 Classical Process Synthesis
14.2 Process Synthesis by Optimization
14.3 Genetic Optimization
14.4 Principle of the Method
14.4.1 Case Study; Separation Process
14.4.2 Case Study; Emulsion Polymerization Process

15. Conclusions

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