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Systematic Drilling and Blasting for Surface Excavation

  


Systematic Drilling and Blasting for Surface Excavation

 

 

File : pdf, 6 MB, 145 pages
military manual

TOC

1. INTRODUCTION
Purpose
Applicability
References
Duties of Government Construction
Personnel
Construction Inspector
Resident Geologist
Specifications
Working Relationships
Geological Information

2. MECHANICS OF BLASTING
Explanation
Partitioning of Energy
Peak Pressure and Shock Wave
Elastic (Seismic) Waves
Air Waves
Fragmentation Near an Explosion
Zones of Deformation
Spalling
Combined Role of Expanding Gases

3. EXPLOSIVES AND THEIR PROPERTIES
Explanation
Properties of Explosives
Strength
Detonation Velocity
Density and Specific Gravity
Detonation Pressure
Water Resistance
Fume Class
Ingredients of Explosive
Dynamytes
Straight Nitroglycerin Dynamite
High- Density Ammonia (Extra) Dynamite
Low- Density Ammonia (Extra) Dynamite
Gelatins
Blasting Gelatin
Straight Gelatin
Ammonia Gelatin
Semigelatin
Blasting Agents (Nitrocarbonitrates)
Dry Blasting Agents
Slurries
Other Explosive s
TNT
PETN
Pentolite
RDX
Composition B
Permissible Explosives
Black Powder
Detonators and Prime a s
Blasting Caps
Detonating Fuse
Primers and Boosters

4. Drilling
Introduction
Principles of Drilling
Rotary Drills
Roller Bits
Diamond Bits
Drag Bits
Power Auger s
Percussive Drills
Rotary-Percussive Drills

5. BASIC SURFACE BLASTING TECHNIQUES
Introduction
Blasting Patterns
Hole Arrays
Delay Patterns
Arrangement of Charge in Hole
General Rock Removal
Bench Blasting
Spacing and Burden
Advantages of Inclined Blastholes
Lifters and Snake Holes
Varying the Hole Array to Fit Natural and Excavation Topography
Charge Distribution
Subdrilling
Secondary Blasting
Coyote Blasting, Trenching, and Cratering
Underwater Blasting
Underwater Surface Shooting
Underwater Blasting in Drill Holes
Excavation for Control of Rock Surfaces
Presplitting
Design of the Presplitting Layout
Relation to Main Blast
Presplitting Horizontal and Vertical Corners
Horizontal Presplitting
Smooth Blasting
Line Drilling and Close Drilling
Precautions in Approaching Final Excavation Surfaces
Blasting for Control of Rock Sizes
Riprap
Aggregate
Rock Fill for Dams

6. MODIFYING BLASTING TECHNIQUES TO FIT GEOLOGICAL CONDITIONS
Exploratory Study
Rock Types
Seismic Velocity
Impedance
Compressive and Tensile Strengths
Density and Porosity
Fractures and Fabric
Joint Frequency
Cushioning Joint Coatings
Orientation of Joints
Orientation in Various Geological Settings
Adverse Orientations
Faults and Breccia
Fabric
Bedding and Stratification
Alternating Rock Types
Porous and Permeable Beds
Weak Beds or Zones
Dipping Strata
Catities
Weathering
Groundwater

7. DAMAGE PREDICTION AND CONTROL
Introduction
Airblast
Damage from Airblast
Propagation of Airblasts
Excessive Airblast Pressure
Recording Equipment
Ground Vibrations
Damage from Ground Vibration
Recording Equipment
Propagation of Ground Vibrations
Reducing Vibrations
Calibration of Site Vibration Levels
Flyrock

8. DRILLING AND BLASTING IN ROCK EXCAVATION BY CONTRACT
General
Customary Contract Approach
Variation of Customary Approach
Considerations in Preparation of Plans and Specifications
Stated Principles of Plans and Specifications
Pertinent General and Special Provisions
Geologic Data
Review Plans for Practicality of Excavation Outlines
Construction Inspection To Be Expected
Blast Records
Sequence of Operations
Specifying Methods–Obtaining Sound Walls
Obtaining Final Grade
Specifying and Prohibiting Certain Practices
Requiring Gradation Ranges in Blasted Rock
Vibration and Damage Control

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One Response to “Systematic Drilling and Blasting for Surface Excavation”

  1. Adrien Greenwalt says:

    Man cannot locate new oceans unless he has the bravery to lose sight of the shore

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