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Lectures on Heat and Thermodynamics

  



Heat and Thermodynamics Lecture Notes

 

 

File : pdf, 1.1 MB, 89 pages

CONTENTS

HEAT Feeling and seeing temperature changes
Classic Dramatic Uses of Temperature-Dependent Effects
The First Thermometer
Newton’s Anonymous Table of Temperatures
Fahrenheit’s Excellent Thermometer
Amontons’ Air Thermometer: Pressure Increases Linearly with Temperature
Thermal Equilibrium and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
Measuring Heat Flow: a Unit of Heat
Specific Heats and Calorimetry
A Connection With Atomic Theory
Latent Heat

THERMAL EXPANSION AND THE GAS LAW
Coefficients of Expansion
Gas Pressure Increase with Temperature
Finding a Natural Temperature Scale
The Gas Law
Avogadro’s Hypothesis

EARLY ATTEMPTS TO UNDERSTAND THE NATURE OF HEAT
When Heat Flows, What, Exactly is Flowing?
Lavoisier’s Caloric Fluid Theory
The Industrial Revolution and the Water Wheel
Measuring Power by Lifting
Carnot’s Caloric Water Wheel
How Efficient are these Machines?
Count Rumford
Rumford’s Theory of Heat

THE DISCOVERY OF ENERGY CONSERVATION: MAYER AND JOULE
Robert Mayer and the Color of Blood
James Joule
But Who Was First: Mayer or Joule?
The Emergence of Energy Conservation
KINETIC THEORY OF GASES: A BRIEF REVIEW
Bernoulli’s Picture
The Link between Molecular Energy and Pressure
Maxwell finds the Velocity Distribution
Velocity Space
Maxwell’s Symmetry Argument
What about Potential Energy?
Degrees of Freedom and Equipartition of Energy
Brownian Motion

IDEAL GAS THERMODYNAMICS: SPECIFIC HEATS, ISOTHERMS, ADIABATS
Introduction: the Ideal Gas Model, Heat, Work and Thermodynamics
The Gas Specific Heats CV and CP
Tracking a Gas in the (P, V) Plane: Isotherms and Adiabats
Equation for an Adiabat

HEAT ENGINES: THE CARNOT CYCLE
The Ultimate in Fuel Efficiency
Step 1: Isothermal Expansion
Step 2: Adiabatic Expansion
Steps 3 and 4: Completing the Cycle
Efficiency of the Carnot Engine

THE LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS AND LIMITS ON ENGINE EFFICIENCY
The Laws of Thermodynamics
How the Second Law Limits Engine Efficiency

A NEW THERMODYNAMIC VARIABLE: ENTROPY
Introduction
Heat Changes along Different Paths from a to c are Different!
But Something Heat Related is the Same: Introducing Entropy
Finding the Entropy Difference for an Ideal Gas
Entropy in Irreversible Change: Heat Flow Without Work
Entropy Change without Heat Flow: Opening a Divided Box
The Third Law of Thermodynamics

ENTROPY AND THE KINETIC THEORY: THE MOLECULAR PICTURE
Searching for a Molecular Description of Entropy
Enter the Demon
Boltzmann Makes the Breakthrough
Epitaph: S = k ln W
But What Are the Units for Measuring W ?
A More Dynamic Picture
The Removed Partition: What Are the Chances of the Gas Going Back?
Demon Fluctuations
Entropy and “Disorder”
Summary: Entropy, Irreversibility and the Meaning of Never
Everyday Examples of Irreversible Processes

MOLECULAR COLLISIONS
Difficulties Getting the Kinetic Theory Moving
How Fast Are Smelly Molecules?
The Mean Free Path
Gas Viscosity Doesn’t Depend on Density!
Gas Diffusion: the Pinball Scenario; Finding the Mean Free Path in Terms of the Molecular Diameter
But the Pinball Picture is Too Simple: the Target Molecules Are Moving!
If Gases Intermingle 0.5cm in One Second, How Far in One Hour?
Actually Measuring Mean Free Paths
Why did Newton get the Speed of Sound Wrong?

BROWNIAN MOTION
Introduction: Jiggling Pollen Granules
Einstein’s Theory: the Osmosis Analogy
An Atmosphere of Yellow Spheres
Langevin’s Theory

HEAT TRANSPORT: CONDUCTION, CONVECTION, RADIATION
Conduction
Microscopic Picture of Conduction
American Units
Convection
Radiation

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One Response to “Lectures on Heat and Thermodynamics”

  1. tamilselvan says:

    please sent me the chemical engineering books.

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