**Heat and Thermodynamics Lecture Notes**

File : pdf, 1.1 MB, 89 pages

CONTENTS

HEAT Feeling and seeing temperature changes

Classic Dramatic Uses of Temperature-Dependent Effects

The First Thermometer

Newton’s Anonymous Table of Temperatures

Fahrenheit’s Excellent Thermometer

Amontons’ Air Thermometer: Pressure Increases Linearly with Temperature

Thermal Equilibrium and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics

Measuring Heat Flow: a Unit of Heat

Specific Heats and Calorimetry

A Connection With Atomic Theory

Latent Heat

THERMAL EXPANSION AND THE GAS LAW

Coefficients of Expansion

Gas Pressure Increase with Temperature

Finding a Natural Temperature Scale

The Gas Law

Avogadro’s Hypothesis

EARLY ATTEMPTS TO UNDERSTAND THE NATURE OF HEAT

When Heat Flows, What, Exactly is Flowing?

Lavoisier’s Caloric Fluid Theory

The Industrial Revolution and the Water Wheel

Measuring Power by Lifting

Carnot’s Caloric Water Wheel

How Efficient are these Machines?

Count Rumford

Rumford’s Theory of Heat

THE DISCOVERY OF ENERGY CONSERVATION: MAYER AND JOULE

Robert Mayer and the Color of Blood

James Joule

But Who Was First: Mayer or Joule?

The Emergence of Energy Conservation

KINETIC THEORY OF GASES: A BRIEF REVIEW

Bernoulli’s Picture

The Link between Molecular Energy and Pressure

Maxwell finds the Velocity Distribution

Velocity Space

Maxwell’s Symmetry Argument

What about Potential Energy?

Degrees of Freedom and Equipartition of Energy

Brownian Motion

IDEAL GAS THERMODYNAMICS: SPECIFIC HEATS, ISOTHERMS, ADIABATS

Introduction: the Ideal Gas Model, Heat, Work and Thermodynamics

The Gas Specific Heats CV and CP

Tracking a Gas in the (P, V) Plane: Isotherms and Adiabats

Equation for an Adiabat

HEAT ENGINES: THE CARNOT CYCLE

The Ultimate in Fuel Efficiency

Step 1: Isothermal Expansion

Step 2: Adiabatic Expansion

Steps 3 and 4: Completing the Cycle

Efficiency of the Carnot Engine

THE LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS AND LIMITS ON ENGINE EFFICIENCY

The Laws of Thermodynamics

How the Second Law Limits Engine Efficiency

A NEW THERMODYNAMIC VARIABLE: ENTROPY

Introduction

Heat Changes along Different Paths from a to c are Different!

But Something Heat Related is the Same: Introducing Entropy

Finding the Entropy Difference for an Ideal Gas

Entropy in Irreversible Change: Heat Flow Without Work

Entropy Change without Heat Flow: Opening a Divided Box

The Third Law of Thermodynamics

ENTROPY AND THE KINETIC THEORY: THE MOLECULAR PICTURE

Searching for a Molecular Description of Entropy

Enter the Demon

Boltzmann Makes the Breakthrough

Epitaph: S = k ln W

But What Are the Units for Measuring W ?

A More Dynamic Picture

The Removed Partition: What Are the Chances of the Gas Going Back?

Demon Fluctuations

Entropy and “Disorder”

Summary: Entropy, Irreversibility and the Meaning of Never

Everyday Examples of Irreversible Processes

MOLECULAR COLLISIONS

Difficulties Getting the Kinetic Theory Moving

How Fast Are Smelly Molecules?

The Mean Free Path

Gas Viscosity Doesn’t Depend on Density!

Gas Diffusion: the Pinball Scenario; Finding the Mean Free Path in Terms of the Molecular Diameter

But the Pinball Picture is Too Simple: the Target Molecules Are Moving!

If Gases Intermingle 0.5cm in One Second, How Far in One Hour?

Actually Measuring Mean Free Paths

Why did Newton get the Speed of Sound Wrong?

BROWNIAN MOTION

Introduction: Jiggling Pollen Granules

Einstein’s Theory: the Osmosis Analogy

An Atmosphere of Yellow Spheres

Langevin’s Theory

HEAT TRANSPORT: CONDUCTION, CONVECTION, RADIATION

Conduction

Microscopic Picture of Conduction

American Units

Convection

Radiation

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