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Coal Pyrolysis

  



Coal Pyrolysis

 

 

 

File : 5 MB, 177 pages

TOC

Chapt 1 INTRODUCTION

Chapt 2 CHEMICAL STRUCTURE OF COALS
2.1 FUNCTIONAL GROUPS
2.1.1 Aromatic nuclei
2.1.2 Aliphatic structures
2.1.3 Oxygen functionalities
2.2 STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL GROUP ANALYSIS
2.2.1 The Brown and Ladner method
2.2.2 Detailed structural analysis
2.2.3 Computer-assisted molecular structure construction
2.2.4 Functional group analysis by linear programming

Chapt 3 THERMAL REACTIONS OF COAL
3.1 BOND DISSOCIATION WITH PRODUCTION OF TWO RADICALS
3.1.1 Activation energies
3.1.2 A-factors
3.1.3 The effect of phenolic hydroxyl groups
3.2 DISSOCIATION OF FREE RADICALS
3.3 RECOMBINATION OF ALPHA RADICALS
3.4 HYDROGEN ABSTRACTION
3.5 ADDITION OF RADICALS TO DOUBLE BONDS
3.6 ADDITION OF RADICALS TO AROMATIC RINGS
3.7 REACTIONS OF CARBOXYL AND PHENOLIC HYDROXYL GROUPS
3.8 CONCERTED REACTIONS

Chapt 4 EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUES AND RESULTS IN FLASH PYROLYSIS
4.1 EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUES
4.1.1 The entrained flow technique
4.1.2 The captive sample technique
4.1.3 The pyroprobe
4.2 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.2.1 Weight loss
4.2.2 Product distribution
4.2.3 Char and tar composition; distribution of sulphur and nitrogen
4.2.4 Effects of pretreatment and atmosphere of pyrolysis
4.2.5 Effect of inorganic constitutents or additives on pyrolysis product yields
4.2.6 Miscellaneous techniques and results
4.3 PYROLYSIS PROCESSES
4.3.1 The COED process
4.3.2 The Occidental Research Corporation process

Chapt 5 HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER IN PYROLYSIS
5.1 PYROLYSIS AND THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF COAL
5.1.1 The plastic state of coals
5.1.2 Changes in the porous structure of coals during pyrolysis
5.2 THE EFFECTS OF PRESSURE AND PARTICLE SIZE ON PRODUCT YIELDS
5.2.1· The effect of pressure
5.2.2 The effect of particle size
5.3 ANALYSIS OF HEAT TRANSFER
5.3.1 Criteria for the absence of heat transfer limitations
5.3.2 Analysis of combined heat transfer and kinetics
5.4 ANALYSIS OF MASS TRANSFER
5.4.1 Film mass transfer
5.4.2 Intraparticle mass transfer in softening coals
5.4.3 Intraparticle mass transfer in nonsoftening coals

Chapt 6 KINETIC MODELS OF COAL PYROLYSIS III
6.1 INDEPENDENT FIRST ORDER REACTIONS III
6.1.1 A single first order reaction
6.1.2 Several first order reactions for weight loss
6.1.3 Several first order reactions for individual products
6.2 COMPETING REACTIONS
6.2.1 Model of Unger and Suuberg
6.2.2 Model of Solomon
6.3 DETAILED CHEMICAL MODELS
6.3.1 A detailed kinetic model
6.3.2 Further ideas on kinetic modeling

Chapt 7 HYDROPYROLYSIS
7.1 CAPTIVE SAMPLE EXPERIMENTS
7.2 PACKED BED EXPERIMENTS
7.3 MODIFIED CAPTIVE SAMPLE EXPERIMENTS
7.4 ENTRAINED FLOW EXPERIMENTS
7.5 MODEL COMPOUND STUDIES
7.6 MODElliNG

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