Turbine Steam Path Damage: Theory and Practice

Turbine Steam Path Damage: Theory and Practice


Volume 1: Turbine Fundamentals


File : pdf, 11.4 MB, 218 pages


1 Introduction and Background
1.1 Historical Background to Turbine Damage
1.2 Significance of Turbine Blade Failures
1.3 Objectives of this Book
1.4 Scope of Coverage
1.5 Organization of this Book
1.6 Recent Developments in the Identification, Correction, and Prevention of Steam Path Damage
1.7 Some Challenges that Remain

2 Thermodynamic Principles and Power Plant Steam Cycles
2.1 Introduction and Significance of Challenges Facing Turbine Components
2.2 Review of Thermodynamic Principles
2.3 Steam Properties
2.4 Steam Cycles – Theory
2.5 Turbine Efficiency and Overview of Losses
2.6 Steam Cycles – Practice
2.7 Moisture Limitations

3 Turbine Design and Construction Fundamentals
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Overall Turbine Design
3.3 Fossil and Nuclear Turbine Designs Compared
3.4 Steam Turbines for Co-Generation, Combined Cycle and Geothermal Plants
3.5 Rotors
3.6 Casings
3.7 Valves
3.8 Seals
3.9 Bypass Systems
3.10 Drains

4 Turbine Blading Design I: Overview of Function, Features and Materials of Construction
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Features and Structure of HP and IP Blades
4.3 Features and Structure of LP Blades
4.4 Required Material Properties
4.5 Materials of Construction for HP and IP Blades
4.6 Materials of Construction for LP Blades
4.7 Surface Treatments

5 Turbine Blading Design II: Stresses, Evaluation of Frequency Response and Aerodynamics
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Turbine Blade Stresses
5.3 Frequency Response and the Campbell Diagram
5.4 Aerodynamic Analysis and Flow Analysis of Blades

6 Life Assessment Methods
6.1 Introduction
6.2 A Generic Procedure for Blade and Blade Attachment Life Assessment
6.3 Stress Analysis
6.4 Fatigue Analysis
6.5 Fracture Mechanics Analysis
6.6 Deterministic and Probabilistic Methods
6.7 Creep and Creep-Fatigue
6.8 Life Assessment for Creep Damage

7 Steam Chemistry and the Turbine
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Developing Guidelines for Cycle Chemistry: Origin and
Transport of Impurities; Solubility and Volatility
7.3 Fossil Plant Cycle Chemistry Guidelines
7.4 Nuclear Plant Cycle Chemistry Guidelines
7.5 Specific Application of Cycle Chemistry Guidelines

8 Impurities in the Turbine: Condensation, Droplet and Liquid Film
Formation, and Deposition
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Moisture Nucleation
8.3 Effect of Chemistry on Nucleation
8.4 The Early Condensate
8.5 Liquid Film Formation
8.6 Deposition on Blade Surfaces
8.7 Observations of Electrically Charged Droplets and Liquid Films
8.8 Summary of Impurity Concentration and Deposition
8.9 Instrumentation for Analysis of Steam Samples, Condensate, and Deposits

9 Metallurgical and Chemical Analysis; Mechanical Testing
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Identify Damaged Locations
9.3 Complete Damage Report
9.4 Sample Identification, Documentation and Removal
9.5 Prepare Background Information Package
9.6 Prepare Metallurgical Evaluation Plan
9.7 Visual and Other NDE of As-Received Sample(s)
9.8 Metallographic and Fractographic Analysis
9.9 Chemical Analysis: Alloy Verification and Deposit Analysis
9.10 Evaluate Mechanical Properties
9.11 Prepare a Damage Analysis Report

10 Monitoring and Diagnostics
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Turbine Instrumentation
10.3 Performance Testing
10.4 Monitoring Performance by Enthalpy Drop Testing
10.5 Measuring LP Stage Efficiency and Wetness Levels with an Optical Wetness Probe
10.6 Interpreting Enthalpy Drop Test Results
10.7 Other Degradation Diagnostics
10.8 Measuring Blade Vibration
10.9 Modal Testing

11 Inspection and NDE Methods
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Steam Path Audits and Outage Inspections
11.3 Visual Examination and Access Issues
11.4 Inspection of Rotating Blades
11.5 Inspection of Stationary Blades and Turbine Components
11.6 Inspection of Disc Rim Blade Attachments and Disc Keyways

12 Formalized Programs for the Correction, Prevention and Control of Damage
12.1 Formalizing a Company-Wide Program for Correction, Prevention and Control of Steam Path Damage
12.2 Corporate Directives/Philosophy Statement and Program Goals
12.3 The Turbine Condition Assessment Team (T-CAT); Multidisciplinary Approach and Personnel Training
12.4 Comprehensive Reporting and Trending
12.5 Economic Evaluations
12.6 Extending the Interval Between TurbineGenerator Outages
12.7 Shortening Outage Length

13 Turbine Repairs and Repair Methods
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Blade Replacement
13.3 Information Common to All Blade Repairs
13.4 Erosion Shield Repair
13.5 Tenon and Coverband (Shroud) Repair
13.6 Lashing Lugs and Tiewire Repair
13.7 Airfoil Repair
13.8 Rotating Blade Root Repair
13.9 Repairs to Stationary Blades/Nozzles
13.10 Information Common to All Rotor Repairs
13.11 Repair of Disc Rim Blade Attachment Area of Rotors

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