Seismic Analysis and Design of Retaining Walls,Buried Structures, Slopes, and Embankments

Seismic Analysis and Design of Retaining Walls,Buried Structures, Slopes, and Embankments


Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1 Overall Project Objectives, Approach, and Schedule
1.2 Project Background
1.3 Organization of Final Report
1.3.1 Volume 1—Final Project Report
1.3.2 Volume 2—Recommended Specifications, Commentaries, and Example Problems

Chapter 2 Data Collection and Review
2.1 Earthquake Design Basis
2.2 Literature Search
2.2.1 Key References
2.2.2 General Observations
2.3 DOT, Vendor, and Consultant Contacts
2.4 Conclusions

Chapter 3 Problems and Knowledge Gaps
3.1 Retaining Walls
3.1.1 Gravity and Semi-Gravity Walls
3.1.2 MSE Retaining Walls
3.1.3 Soil Nail Walls
3.2 Slopes and Embankments
3.2.1 Seismic Considerations for Soil Slopes
3.2.2 Seismic Considerations for Rock Slopes
3.3 Buried Structures
3.4 Conclusions

Chapter 4 Work Plan: Analytical Methodologies
4.1 Developments for Seismic Ground Motions
4.2 Developments for Retaining Walls
4.2.1 Generalized Limit Equilibrium Analyses
4.2.2 Wall Height-Dependent Seismic Coefficient
4.2.3 Deformation Analyses
4.3 Developments for Slopes and Embankments
4.4 Developments for Buried Structures
4.4.1 Analysis Procedures for TGD
4.4.2 Analysis Procedures for Permanent Ground Deformations (PGD)
4.5 Summary

Chapter 5 Seismic Ground Motions
5.1 Seismic Loading Criteria
5.1.1 Update to AASHTO Seismic Ground Motion Criteria
5.1.2 Range of Ground Shaking Levels in the United States for Referenced Soft Rock
5.1.3 Variation in Spectral Shapes for Soil and Rock Sites in WUS versus CEUS
5.2 Newmark Displacement Correlations
5.2.1 Approach for Updating Newmark Charts
5.2.2 Description of Ground Motion Database
5.2.3 Permanent Displacement Data
5.2.4 Microsoft Access Database
5.2.5 Spectral Acceleration Characteristics
5.2.6 Correlation between PGV and S1, PGA and M
5.2.7 Newmark Sliding Block Displacement Correlations
5.2.8 Comparison Between Correlations
5.2.9 Confidence Level
5.2.10 Design Recommendations
5.3 Correlation of PGV with S1
5.4 Conclusions

Chapter 6 Height-Dependent Seismic Coefficients
6.1 Wave Scattering Evaluations
6.1.1 Scattering Analyses for a Slope
6.1.2 Scattering Analyses for Retaining Walls
6.2 Conclusions

Chapter 7 Retaining Walls
7.1 Current Design Practice
7.2 The M-O Method and Limitations
7.2.1 Seismic Active Earth Pressures
7.2.2 Seismic Passive Earth Pressures
7.3 M-O Earth Pressures for Cohesive Soils
7.3.1 Evaluation of the Contribution from Cohesion
7.3.2 Results of M-O Analyses for Soils with Cohesion
7.3.3 Implication to Design
7.4 GLE Approach for Determining Seismic Active Pressures
7.5 Height-Dependent Seismic Design Coefficients
7.5.1 Evaluation of Impedance Contrasts and Soil Behavior
7.5.2 Results of Impedance Contrast and Nonlinearity Evaluations
7.6 Displacement-Based Design for Gravity, Semi Gravity, and MSE Walls
7.7 Conventional Gravity and Semi-Gravity Walls—Recommended Design Method for External Stability
7.8 MSE Walls—Recommended Design Methods
7.8.1 Current Design Methodology
7.8.2 MSE Walls—Design Method for External Stability
7.8.3 MSE Walls—Design Method for Internal Stability
7.9 Other Wall Types
7.9.1 Nongravity Cantilevered Walls
7.9.2 Anchored Walls
7.9.3 Soil Nail Walls
7.10 Conclusions

Chapter 8 Slopes and Embankments
8.1 Types and Performance of Slopes
8.1.1 Engineered Slopes and Embankments
8.1.2 Natural Slopes
8.2 Current Practice
8.2.1 Limit Equilibrium Approach
8.2.2 Displacement-Based Approach
8.3 Proposed Design Methodology
8.3.1 Limit Equilibrium Approach
8.3.2 Displacement-Based Approach
8.4 Example Application
8.4.1 Problem Description
8.4.2 Results
8.5 Other Considerations
8.5.1 Limit Equilibrium Design Methods
8.5.2 No Analysis Cut-off
8.5.3 Liquefaction Potential
8.6 Conclusions

Chapter 9 Buried Structures
9.1 Seismic Performance of Culverts and Pipelines
9.2 Culvert/Pipe Characteristics
9.2.1 Flexible Culverts and Pipes
9.2.2 Rigid Culverts and Pipes
9.3 General Effects of Earthquakes and Potential Failure Modes
9.3.1 Ground Shaking
9.3.2 Ground Failure
9.4 Current Seismic Design Practice for Culverts or Other Buried Structures
9.5 General Methodology and Recommended Procedures
9.5.1 Ovaling of Circular Conduits
9.5.2 Racking of Rectangular Conduits
9.6 Parametric and Verification Analysis
9.6.1 Types of Structures and Other Parameters Used in Evaluation
9.6.2 Model Assumptions and Results
9.7 Conclusions and Recommendations

Chapter 10 Recommendations for Future Work
10.1 Ground Motions and Displacements
10.2 Retaining Walls
10.3 Slopes and Embankments
10.4 Buried Structures
10.5 Need for Confirming Methods

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